An Edah Editorial
By Larry Yudelson
Darwin is Not the Enemy
By Larry Yudelson
David Klinghoffer wonders why the Jewish community hasn't joined
the struggle against Darwin. He asserts high theological stakes: If it
cannot be proven that the origin of life is a scientific impossibility, then
Judaism cannot be believed.
Klinghoffer seems unaware that an Orthodox Jewish response
to Darwin was offered a century ago by Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook.
Rav Kook, who was to become the chief rabbi of prestate Palestine,
saw no need to disprove evolution. Indeed, he saw Darwin's theory as pointing
to "the unfolding of the spiritual dimension of existence, which does not
show a hiatus of a single wasted step."
The problem raised by evolution, said Rav Kook, was based on
its conflict with the religious views of the masses, not on the inner
truth of Judaism.
"For this," he wrote, "there is need of great
illumination, which is to penetrate all strata of society, until it reaches
with its agreeable harmonization even the simplest circles of the masses"
(Orot Hakodesh II 556-560).
Rav Kook's faith-filled response to science contrasts with
that of Klinghoffer and his colleagues in the Intelligent Design movement,
desperately seeking God at the final line of the scientific enterprise. It is
a challenging search, in part because our understanding of biochemistry and
molecular genetics has deepened in recent years. Whether Klinghoffer likes it
or not, we are simply understanding more about how the world works.
That is why Intelligent Design is ridiculed for worshiping
a "God of the gaps," a deity whose existence is found in the failure
scientists to fully explain every natural phenomenon. The majesty of such a
God decreases with every new scientific study.
Certainly the Catholic Church did itself no favors when it
placed its theological bets against the astronomical discoveries of Copernicus
The Church, like Klinghoffer, would have done well to follow
the path of Maimonides, who opposed his contemporaries who preached the eternity
of the world simply because "the theory has not been proved" (Guide
II 25), while allowing that were it to be proved, it would not contradict the
core Jewish beliefs.
(Maimonides' willingness to interpret the Torah figuratively
places him at odds with today's haredi Creationists, who insist the world is
less than 6,000 years old and ban dinosaurs from their classrooms.)
The true beauty of Rav Kook's approach, however, is not its
pragmatism but its piety. He believes that God is the premise, not the
conclusion. His God is not ascertained in scientific arguments but through perception
In marked contrast to Klinghoffer's fear, Rav Kook reacted
to those who postulate a purely physical world with equanimity, regarding "this
childish construction as one which fashions the outer shell of life while not
knowing how to build life itself" (Igrot I 44).
Rav Kook explicitly rejects the very moral logic of seeking
God through the scientific means: "We do not base our faith in God on an
inference from the existence of the world, or the character of the world, but
on inner sensibility, on our disposition for the divine
Rav Kook's perspective, for all its poetic majesty, is self-evident
for any Jew who takes the prayerbook seriously.
In the morning, when we praise God for "mercifully shining
light on the Earth and those who dwell on it," we are not claiming that
physics is inadequate to explain the sunrise. Rather, we see the nuclear furnace
93 million miles away as a reflection of God.
The next line tells us a key fact for a believing Jew: God
constantly renews the work of creation. Our prayerbook does not deny any
materialistic mechanism to the sunrise, be it the chariot of Apollo or the laws
of gravity. It asserts only that the rising of the sun
reflects God's will, constancy and love.
We believe that God maintains each spinning electron not because
we can think of no better explanation for physics but because that is our core
belief about God. And our belief in God does not preclude our working to examine
and understand the workings of His world as fully as is possible.
In fact, for Rav Kook the developing conception of science
is important because it fosters a developing conception of God.
Conversely, Rav Kook would argue that atheism among evolutionary theorists is
not a sign that something is wrong with the structure of biological science,
but rather as a sign that something is wrong with religion.
Rav Kook would argue that Klinghoffer should not be toiling
in the journals of biological research, but should be seeking to penetrate
the inner meaning of Torah's mystical core: "In general this is an important
principle in the conflict of ideas, that when an idea comes
to negate some teaching in the Torah, we must not, to begin with, reject it,
but build the edifice of the Torah above it, and thereby we
ascend higher, and through this ascent, the ideas are clarified" (Igrot
Klinghoffer is right in one respect: As a key architect of
our modern world, Darwin presents a challenge to religion. But the real challenge
we religious Jews face is not to destroy what Darwin built but to build what
Rav Kook envisioned, a living religion as dazzling in its way as Darwinian science
is in its way.